August 18, 2009

動詞  verb classifications


I will write about classifications of verbs today.

(a) Group 1(u-verb), Group 2(ru-verb) and Irregular

① Group 1 – “ i “ comes before masu. かきます→ kaki-masu
② Group 2 – “ e “ comes before masu. みせます→ mise-masu
  exception : there are 8 words “ i “ comes before masu in Group 2.
 みます(see)、います(be there)、きます(wear)、できます(can do)、
 おきます(get up)、あびます(take a shower)、かります(borrow)、

 おります(get off)
③ Irregular – two words, きます(come) and します (do)

(b) 意志動詞(いしどうし) & 無意志動詞(むいしどうし)

①意志動詞 (volitional verb) 

 : the subject somehow willingly initiate the action.
  ex. よむ(to read)、たべる(to eat)、はしる(to run)

②無意志動詞 (non-volitional verb)

 : the subject performs the action but does not necessarily willingly do so.
  ex. ふる(to rain),さく(to bloom), ふえる(increase)

(c) 自動詞(じどうし) & 他動詞(たどうし)

① 自動詞(intransitive verb) : verb which do not need objects
 The subject of an intransitive sentence is often an inanimate object.
 ex. あめがふります。 Rain will fall. → It will rain.

②他動詞(transitive verb) : verb which need objects
 A person who does something usually becomes the subject of a transitive sentence.
 ex. かれは まいあさ しんぶんを よみます。 He reads newspaper every morning.

(d) 継続動詞(けいぞくどうし) & 瞬間動詞(しゅんかんどうし)

①継続動詞(duration verb) : verb expresses progressive actions
 ex. たべる(to eat)、よむ(to read),
 This verb’s “~ている” form indicates ongoing action

 such as : たべている (be eating)

②瞬間動詞(momentary verb) : verb expresses momentary actions
 ex. けっこんする (to marry), しぬ(to die)
 This verb’s “~ている” form indicates completion

 such as : けっこんしている (be married)
 Therefore, “~ている” form does not indicate ongoing actions.

* Most of verbs can be either ① or ②, for example, 「きる (to wear)」
 「きものをきている」 means “She wears/is in Kimono” or “She is now wearing Kimono.”

There are some other categories but these are the most important ones.

No comments: